Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks

Exploring Lessons Learned from a Century of Outbreaks: Readiness for 2030: Proceedings of a Workshop


In November 2018, an ad hoc planning committee at the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine planned two sister workshops held in Washington, DC, to examine the lessons from influenza pandemics and other major outbreaks, understand the extent to which the lessons have been learned, and discuss how they could be applied further to ensure that countries are sufficiently ready for future pandemics. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from both workshops.

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Resource Details

National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine


231 pages

Equity – Disasters
Infectious Disease
Lessons Identified

Table of Contents

– Is the World Ready to Respond to the Next Influenza Pandemic?
– Historical Influenza Pandemics, An In-Depth Examination of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic
– 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic
– Potential Impacts of a Modern Pandemic

Global Progress to Prepare for the Next Influenza Pandemic
– Scientific Advances in Countering Pandemic Influenza
– Progress Toward a Universal Influenza Vaccine
– Global Governance to Bolster Pandemic Preparedness
– A One Health Approach for Preparedness

Reflections on a Century of Infectious Disease Outbreaks and Pandemics
– Impact of Outbreaks and Pandemics on People, Communities, and Economies
– A Century of Evolving Pandemic and Emerging Infectious Diseases Challenges

Building Local and National Capabilities for Outbreak Preparedness
– Lessons from the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak in Saudi Arabia
– Lessons from the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic in Liberia
– Lessons from the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Outbreak in Hong Kong
– Lessons from Working in the Frontlines with Local Communities and International Organizations

A Spectrum of Considerations for Pandemic Vaccines
– Global Coordination in Vaccine Development: A Snapshot of the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System
– Regulatory Pathways
– Manufacturing Capacity and Production
– Timing and Deployment of Vaccines
– World Health Organization’s Role and Legal Considerations in Vaccine Response

The Development of the PIP Framework: Global Lessons on Equity and Fairness
– Context for the Development of the PIP Framework: Perspective from Indonesia
– Context for the Development of the PIP Framework: Perspective from the United States
– Process of Developing the PIP Framework
– Potential Challenges and Opportunities for the PIP Framework

Overcoming Impediments to Achieving Greater Preparedness
– Institutionalizing Preparedness
– U.S. Leadership in Advancing Global Preparedness
– Making the Case for Local Preparedness
– Broadening the Concept of Health Security
– Small-Group Discussions: Potential Strategies to Systematize and Integrate Preparedness

Visions on Potential Priorities and Actions for Preparedness by 2030
– Bolstering Public Understanding and the Organizational, Resource, and Technological Commitments for Preparedness
– Political Prioritization and Strategies for Preparedness
– Building Preparedness Capacities on Day-to-Day Systems
– Improving Local, National, Regional, and Global Capacities for Preparedness: A Perspective from the Pan American Health Organization

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